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The concept of emotional burnout at work in the conditions of the COVID-19 pandemic / Концепция эмоционального выгорания на работе в условиях пандемии Covid-19

Андреева Екатерина Юрьевна

ORCID: 0000-0001-9953-4958

преподаватель, Департамент иностранных языков и межкультурной коммуникации Факультета международных экономических отношений, Финансовый университет при Правительстве Российской Федерации; соискатель ученой степени кандидата филологических наук, кафедра английского языкознания, Московский государственный университет имени М. В. Ломоносова; Lecturer, Department of Foreign Languages and Intercultural Communication, Faculty of International Economic Relations, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation; PhD researcher, Department of English Linguistics, Lomonosov Moscow State University

125993, Россия, г. Москва, Ленинградский проспект, 49

Andreeva Ekaterina Yurievna

Educator, the department of Foreign Languages and Corss-Cultural Communication, the faculty of International Economic Relations, Financial University under the Government of the Rusian Federation; External Doctoral Candidate, the department of English Linguistics, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University

125993, Russia, g. Moscow, Leningradskii prospekt, 49

KATERINA88557@yandex.ru
Другие публикации этого автора
 

 
Клешнина Мария Олеговна

студент, кафедра Факультет международных экономических отношений, Финансовый университет при Правительстве Российской Федерации; student, Faculty of International Economic Relations, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation

125993, Россия, г. Москва, ул. Ленинградский пр-Т, 49

Kleshnina Mariya Olegovna

Student, the department of International Economic Relations, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation

125993, Russia, g. Moscow, ul. Leningradskii pr-T, 49

mrkleshnina@yandex.ru

DOI:

10.7256/2454-0722.2021.4.36955

Дата направления статьи в редакцию:

25-11-2021


Дата публикации:

31-12-2021


Аннотация: Высокая степень влияния пандемии на повседневную жизнь, а также условия изоляции при ещё большем количестве выполняемой работы говорят о повышенном уровне стресса, с которым сталкивается в наше время каждый сотрудник. Несомненно, существует неразрывная связь между повышенным числом эмоционально выгоревших работников и условиями самоизоляции, в которые затянувшаяся пандемия Covid-19 ставит современное общество. Таким образом, предметом настоящего исследования являются различные факторы, которые оказывают непосредственное влияние на эмоциональное состояние молодых специалистов и студентов высших учебных заведений, а также возможные последствия эмоционального выгорания.   Научная новизна исследования заключается в том, что в настоящей статье представлен подробный анализ эмоционального и профессионального видов выгорания, а также последствий пандемии, которая нанесла серьёзный удар по наиболее уязвимому звену — людям, занятых в сфере умственного труда. Данная группа сталкивалась с непреодолимым стрессом на работе и учёбе ещё до разгара пандемии. В последние годы ситуация стала ещё серьёзнее: всё больше людей относят себя к категории эмоционально выгоревших, и многие считают причиной пандемию. В рамках данной работы был проведен опрос под названием ''The Symptoms of the Job Burnout Questionnaire'' среди студентов и молодых специалистов Финансового университета при Правительстве Российской Федерации. Результаты данного опроса, а также 'эффективные методы борьбы с эмоциональным выгоранием в период пандемии подробно представлены в основной части настоящего исследования.


Ключевые слова: психология, эмоции, эмоциональное выгорание, стресс, профессиональное выгорание, пандемия COVID-19, эмоциональное истощение, нарушения сна, изменение личности, молодые специалисты

Abstract: The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic upon everyday live alongside the conditions of isolation with even more tasks to be accomplished, testify to the high level of distress faced by every employee. There is an inextricable link between the increased number of workers experiencing emotional burnout and the conditions of self-isolation due to the pandemic. Thus, the subject of this research is the factors that have a direct impact upon the emotional state of young professionals and university students, as well as possible consequences of the emotional burnout. The scientific novelty lies in comprehensive analysis of the emotional and professional types of burnout, as well as the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic, which inflicted a severe blow to the most vulnerable link – knowledge workers. This group faced an overwhelming stress at work and studying even prior to the outbreak of the pandemic. In recent years, the situation has worsened: an increasing number of people identify themselves as emotionally burned out, and many blame the pandemic. The author conducted the survey “Symptoms of the Job Burnout Questionnaire” among the students and young professionals of the Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation. The results, as well as effective methods of coping with emotional burnout during the pandemic, are presented in this research.



Keywords:

young specialists, change in personality, sleep disorders, emotional exhaustion, COVID-19 pandemic, professional burnout, stress, emotional burnout, emotions, psychology

Introduction

It would not be an overestimation to say that nowadays more and more employees are suffering from the "emotional burnout" [Freudenberg, 1974]. In the end, there is often long sick leave or complete occupational disability.

The issue has been studied by a significant amount of Russian and foreign scholars including V. V. Boyko [2,3], G. A. Makarova [7], N. E. Vodopyanova [4, 5], A. A. Isaev, G. S. Nikiforov, E. A. Rodionova [6], A. A. Baytimirova, I. N. Konopleva [1], E.Yu. Cherniakevich, E.V. Pogodina [9], E. Maher [18], Ch. Zastrow [28], C. Maslach [19, 20, 21, 22, 23], Tukaev S. V., Vasheka T. V., Dolgova O. [8].

Job burnout is a comprehensive symptom of physical, mental and energy exhaustion caused by long-term work stress, which includes three dimensions: 1) emotional exhaustion; 2) dehumanization; 3) personal accomplishment [19]. It often begins with excessive zeal. If there is no "reward" for work, there is an "imbalance" between what one does and what they get for it. In addition, especially now, at the time of COVID-19 pandemic restrictions, the working pressure in companies is increasing. Moreover, if employees postpone or shorten their vacation because of work or the current epidemiological situation, take work home regularly, they are at risk of a burnout. The first signs of a burnout are exhaustion, irritability, and a feeling of inner emptiness.

The present paper is devoted to the study of job burnout symptoms in the time of the pandemic and the ways to cope with them.

Methods

The present paper examines the key symptoms, causes, possible consequences and proposes the ways of overcoming the problem in the time of COVID-19 pandemic. Two research methods were combined for the purpose of the study. The first is discourse analysis of written online-communication on the popular chat platforms, forums and social networks (Facebook, Instagram). The communicative situations where people describe the symptoms of job burnout were selected by means of continuous sampling from the forums devoted to the issue of job burnouts.

Second, convenience sampling method was used to analyze the problems connected with the issue of job burnout. A questionnaire consisting of 8 questions about both physical and emotional state of employees at work and home during the period of the pandemic was used in the survey. This method enabled quick gathering of the data and its convenient comparison.

Results and discussion

It is of paramount importance for modern people to take the first signs of burnout seriously. One is already in the middle of a burnout when he or she torments themselves to work in the morning, becomes indifferent to people important to them or if they do not see any sense of doing their work, are depressed and constantly feel exhausted. Such people cannot finish work on time for weeks, hardly spend time with family and friends and do not sleep through nights. On the weekend, they constantly think about their jobs instead of recovering from the week.

The problem is that few employees know exactly what a burn-out is and can therefore do nothing to prevent it at an early stage [22]. After a long period of extremely high level of physical, emotional, and mental pressure and stress, they no longer have the energy to perform their tasks. They are completely burnt out and, in the end, are not able to cope with their everyday responsibilities.

Another very dangerous exhaustion syndrome, still quite unknown, is the "silent burn-out" [17]. It often overtakes people who work with a lot of passion and commitment. This is a creeping process in which those affected by it, find it increasingly difficult to relax and gather their strength. They are constantly energized, quickly irritated, feel inner restlessness, sleep poorly, and slip further and further into a negative spiral of overthinking things. Silent burn-out is therefore often seen as a precursor to a complete burn-out.

Job burnout symptoms

Burnouts are usually caused by chronic stress at work, with which people can no longer cope. There is no clear definition - but multiple studies agree on three main symptoms. First: people experience extreme exhaustion and feel very tired. Secondly, they distance themselves more from their work, can no longer do their job, possibly become cynical. And thirdly, they are less powerful, concentrate worse and often take longer to complete tasks.

According to some models, burnout takes place in several phases. In the initial phase, the affected are still very committed to the job. They work and do a lot but are still tired. At the same time, they can be very ambitious and perfectionist and have too high expectations of themselves. Focusing on the job can also cause them to neglect their own needs. They may meet with friends less often, take less time for hobbies or sports. Then they become more and more exhausted, irritable, restless. In the final phase, they often have a feeling of inner emptiness, are indifferent to work. Burnout syndrome can also cause physical symptoms, such as sleep disorders, headaches, digestive problems, or back pain.

One of the best-known instruments for measuring burnouts is the Maslach Burnout Inventory test [19]. It is divided into three areas: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization (i.e. those affected experience feelings, thoughts, actions or their own bodies as foreign, unreal) and performance unsatisfaction. The test can help to assess the situation better. However, it does not replace the conversation with a doctor or therapist.

If the affected have sleep disorders over a longer period or notice that their concentration decreases significantly, they should go to the doctor. In psychotherapy, patients can learn to take time off again and recognize why they feel so overwhelmed.

Not everyone whose working life is exhausting and demanding or who is confronted with an additional burden automatically reacts with a burnout. In general, there are three leading symptoms that characterize burnouts:

1. Mental and physical exhaustion. A person feels mentally and physically burnt out. Mentally, this exhaustion can be manifested, among other things, through constant depression, anxiety, sleep disorders, having difficulty concentrating, feelings of guilt and hopelessness. In addition, physical complaints often occur, such as hearing falls, vertigo, chest pain, headaches and limb pain, back pain and herniated discs or heart problems. 2. Change in personality. Affected people change - usually without realizing it. Work that used to be fun is often only perceived as torture. Just like contact with customers and colleagues. People affected by the syndrome withdraw noticeably or react with cynicism, depending on their personality. 3. Decreasing work performance. Because they now lack energy and concentration, people have the feeling that they are no longer doing a good job. They can no longer use creativity and competence as they used to. False ambition is the result and causes them to work even harder. That is how the downward spiral begins.

Within the research conducted by the authors of the article, 50 working part-time students and young specialists aged 20 to 35 years old from the Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation took part in a questionnaire answering the questions related to both physical and emotional state during the period of COVID-19 pandemic. In the table below the data of the survey is represented.

Table 1: The Symptoms of the Job Burnout Questionnaire

Question Answers, %
Do you feel run down and drained of physical or emotional energy? Yes – 45,8% Maybe – 31,3% No – 22,9%
Have you recently thought of changing your current job? Yes – 21,7% Maybe – 21,7% No – 56,5%
Do you feel less competent now than before the COVID-19 pandemic? Yes – 19,1% Maybe – 14,9% No – 66%
Do you see your friends less often now than before the COVID-19 pandemic? Yes – 42,6% Maybe – 17% No – 40,4%
Do you feel angry, irritated, annoyed, or disappointed by COVID-19 protective measures? Yes – 38,3% Maybe – 25,5% No – 36,2%
Are you busier now to do ordinary things (meeting relatives, reading, making phone calls, etc.) than before the COVID-19 pandemic? Yes – 30,4% Maybe – 23,9% No – 45,7%
Do you try to avoid conversation with your co-workers? Yes – 4,3% Maybe – 28,3% No – 67,4%
Do you suffer from physical complaints or frequent illness (headaches, stomach/back/neck aches, colds) more often now than before the COVID-19 pandemic? Yes – 25% Maybe – 20,8% No – 54,2%

Possible causes and consequences of job burnout

Many factors play together in burnout syndrome: for example, according to the discourse analysis of the messages on the forums devoted to the issue of burnouts, these can be an exaggerated understanding of duty fulfillment and performance, lack of recognition and/or a false picture of oneself. And contrary to what is often claimed, burnout is by no means a "manager syndrome". It can basically affect anyone, especially in the difficult time of the deadly COVID-19 pandemic. Whether the person is in a management position, in training, 50 or 20 years old: if the stress level at work can no longer be controlled and too high expectations generate great pressure, the risk of contracting a burnout increases. Physical and psychological pressure can go well for some time, which sometimes causes burnouts to be detected very late.

According to the survey, during the period of COVID-19 pandemic the majority of the respondents noticed they feel run down and drained of both physical or emotional energy (Yes – 45,8%; Maybe – 31,3%). More than a half of the respondents confirmed that they now see their friends less often than before the pandemic (Yes – 42,6%; Maybe – 17%). Moreover, many participants tend to feel annoyed by COVID-19 protective measures (Yes – 38,3%; Maybe – 25,5%). These facts can be regarded as the possible causes of job burnouts nowadays.

A number of cross-cultural studies have discovered the links between job burnout and a myriad of health problems, including excessive stress and emotional exhaustion [27], insomnia [15], depression [11, 26], alcohol or substance misuse [12], cardiovascular diseases [24], obesity [13] and diabetes [25], musculoskeletal pain [10]. Almost a half of the respondents confirmed that they feel their physical condition had become worse during the pandemic (Yes – 29,4%; Maybe – 19,6%).

Handling job burnouts

Finding a more varied work can sometimes be the key to getting rid of the problem. Doing routine work and concentrating on work alternating helps most of the times. The sooner one can organize the work, the more self-determined they become. Further self-education and training can also provide a different perspective, especially for the young people.

Moreover, it can be recommended to rethink how high the demands people place on themselves are. Following the well-known expression ‘’Nobody is perfect’’, setting realistic goals might be the best thing. The use of relaxation techniques such as autogenic training can also be helpful. More than that, it is highly important to remember that accepting help from colleagues is not a sign of weakness. The results of the conducted research show that a very insignificant number of the respondents (4,3%) try to avoid conversations with their co-workers. That means that the vast majority of the participants are ready to take emotional support from their colleagues and also give them a helping hand in the difficult times of the pandemic. The analysis of the online-chats and forums on work problems has revealed that some employees tend to seek professional help from a psychotherapist.

If a person has a stressful job, they should take breaks. Employees ought to take some weekends off and stop responding to emails for some time. It also helps calm down from time to time, look out the window, take a walk, listen to music.

It is important to really enjoy the time away from work. Ultimately, it does not matter whether the person meets others, plays chess, or just sits on the sofa and watches TV or listens to music. The online forums and chats in the social networks show that a large number of people regard these simple things as a panacea in the harsh reality of the COVID-19 pandemic.

In addition, employees can ask themselves where the stress comes from, what burdens them the most. Is it the workload? Maybe they can talk to the supervisor and hand in some tasks. Can employees not influence their tasks or how their working day is structured? Here, too, a conversation can help to possibly get more influence and control. Are the working atmosphere and the mood in the team bad? Maybe it is possible to address this - if there is no improvement, employees should perhaps even think about changing jobs. The survey has revealed that nearly 57% of the respondents are completely satisfied with their current job and do not want to change it.

The possible decision for the staff members can be a change of the inner setting. For example, ask themselves: ‘Do I set unrealistic goals?’; ‘Do I want to do everything perfectly?’; ‘Do I judge myself if I make mistakes?’ Through self-reflection or therapy, those affected by such problems can learn to be less hard on themselves or to set more realistic goals. According to the survey, 66% of the young specialists studying and working at the Financial University do not feel less competent in the new reality of the pandemic.

Sports or relaxation techniques such as yoga or autogenic training can help relieve stress. It is important not to consider the compensation as an additional item on the to-do list. It should be fun. For example, when one goes jogging, the focus should not be on running as far or fast as possible. Otherwise, there is the risk of transferring perfectionism from work to sport.

To sum it up, there are four tips on how to find a way out of the stress spiral.

Tip 1: Take a close look. It is essential to find the reasons that lead to high load. Does it appear because of too high expectations or the unattainable targets of the superior? Is the current workload permanent or is it foreseeable that it will decrease again in the next few days and weeks? The employee has to take the time to find out exactly what robs the sleep. Moreover, it can be helpful to ask friends and family for a piece of advice. Together, it is often easier to get to the bottom of the causes. Simce only those who recognize the problem can tackle it.

Tip 2: Change a work situation. The changes do not necessarily have to be accompanied by a job change. But permanent overtime or tasks that exceed the area of activity are not an option in the long run. Therefore, for an employee it is very important to exchange ideas with the colleagues and not be afraid of talking to the company doctor and supervisor about possibilities of taking a break. It is also in the interest of the employer that the employee does a good job and prevents a long-term loss of work place. If you encounter incomprehension, consider whether this is the right working environment in which you want to work for the next few years.

Tip 3: Set limits. A man is not a machine. Work does not always have to be done immediately and the person does not have to be always available. Therefore, it can be recommended for an employees to turn off the work cell phone in the non-working time, enjoying the simple things and setting limits on him- or herself, the customers/clients/students, and the employer.

Tip 4: Balance work. Many psychologists vindicate the idea that the best thing for any person is to plan free time in advance and take a few minutes during working hours to focus attention on beautiful and pleasant things. In general, it is important to pay attention to a healthy lifestyle, such as a balanced diet, fixed bedtimes, enough exercise, and fresh air. These strengthen the body and automatically increase a well-being of an employee. The analysis of the chats on the forums and social networks shows that a lot of employees have changed their quality of life and health when they started to do sports and stick to a diet.

Conclusion

To sum up, it can be observed that the issue of job burnouts among young specialists has become quite urgent nowadays. On the one hand, with the development of various programs and devices the life and communication with colleagues and friends have become easier. On the other hand, in the reality of the deadly COVID-19 pandemic a common fear of the disease, job loss, protective measures increase the stress levels which can lead to dire consequences with both physical and emotional health of a person. Therefore, it is of paramount importance for the modern people to notice the first symptoms of exhaustion and be ready to protect themselves by taking a break. Burnout does not occur overnight. That is the process that should be stopped at the early stages.

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Данная статья посвящена эмоциональному выгоранию как одному из социальных последствий воздействия пандемии новой коронавирусной инфекции. В условиях стремительного распространения болезни, работники, которые переболели ковидом все в большей степени сталкиваются с последствиями постковидного синдрома, который сказывается не только на нормальном функционировании организма человека и способен провоцировать различные заболевания или обострять имеющиеся хронические недуги, но и негативно влиять на продуктивность и работоспособность. Огромное количество современной литературы посвящено изучению эмоционального выгорания, которое признано ведущими международными организациями мира в сфере охраны труда, одним из профессиональных заболеваний и симптомов, возникающих в результате длительного воздействия множественных негативных факторов. Статья выполнена на отличном английском языке, используется точная терминология и международная структура репрезентации научно-исследовательского материала. Однако некоторое сомнение вызывает тот факт, что автор в обосновании актуальности эмоционального выгорания в рабочей среде использует источник 1974 (!) года. Но несомненно, актуальность самой проблемности, поставленной в рамках данной научной статьи, сомнений не вызывает - возникают дополнительные факторы, такие как перенос работы из офиса домой (размывание границ между личным и рабочим временем), оказывающие негативное воздействие на творческий и рабочий ресурс человек.
Методологическая часть работы детально расписана методиками дискурс-анализа социальных сетей, описанием симптомов и последствий Ковид-19 для различных сообществ. Также автором используется метод опроса, который позволил составить таблицу, позволяющую выявить физическое и эмоциональное состояние работников, трудящихся в условиях офиса или удаленной работы. Автор выделяет ключевые проблемы, которые возникают при исследовании эмоционального выгорания в рабочей среде, среди которых в первую очередь отсутствие осведомленности и способности у рабочего осознать сами признаки заболевания. Неумение четко планировать и структурировать свой рабочий день, уходить от воздействия стрессовых факторов, "тихий" или латентный характер выгорания - то, что делает данную проблему социально значимой и весьма острой в условиях пандемии. Преимуществом данной публикации является то, что в ней комплексно анализируются как причины эмоционального выгорания, так и возможные методы противодействия данному синдрому, а также система мер, которые в перспективе могут позволит снизить уровень нагрузки на психическую составляющую работников. Статья имеет высокую практическую значимость и обладает большой степенью научной новизны, однако наличие большего количества статистических данных в области распространения COVID-19 и нормативный анализ источников и документов в сфере ограничений трудовой деятельности, позволили бы внести больший теоретический вклад в развитие данной проблематики. Вместе с тем, статья выполнена согласно всем требованиям, предъявляемым к публикациям в журнале "Психология и Психотехника". Однако в тематическом отношении она больше соответствует проблематике журнала "Социодинамика", поскольку в ней подробно не разбираются психологические механизмы воздействия эмоционального выгорания на структуру человеческой личности и социальный климат.
Также необходимо отметить, что статья выполнена на английском языке, но некоторые позиции в списке литературы представлены на русском языке - их необходимо перевести и транслитерировать. Статья может быть рекомендована к публикации.