Опубликовано в журнале "SENTENTIA. European Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences" в № 2 за 2013 год в рубрике "Philosophy" на страницах 4-7.
Аннотация: Tolerance — passive patience, attitude to another as a decent person. This is a deliberate suppression of feelings of rejection views of manners and habits of the other. An appeal to it was dictated by changes in a church, political and scientific life. The essence and validity of several philosophical positions in justifying the vital problem of tolerance is investigated: above all, tolerance stated by J. Locke and P. Bayle in XVII; an embodiment of the tolerance in the project of multiculturalism and its destiny; culture-centrist and naturalistic concepts. Postmodern deconstruction project as a critic of thinking patterns that leads to dogmatism and intolerance is analysed, and so is the interpretation of tolerance as equality conceptual projects and value systems underlying the different cultures. The different beliefs systems cannot communicate because of they are locked-in. According Derrida to E. Levinas the roots of violence in the 20th century are originated in philosophy — from failure to respect the Other, and the domination of generalisation over individual and personal. The tolerance is needed because it is a virtue against fanaticism, sectarianism and authoritarianism (A. Comte-Sponville). Naturalistic project proposes to consider human only as a form of the biological life, and one should not oppose culture to biology, nature and wildness. When the human feels as a part of the living world, he ceases to be Aggressive? And he is more able to engage in a dialoque and interaction.
Ключевые слова: tolerance, contemporary philosophy, human, postmodernism, practical humanism, new naturalism, culture, fanaticism, sectarianism, authoritarianism.
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Comte-Sponville A. Small treatise on the great virtues or How to use the philosophy of everyday life. (In Russian). Moscow, Eterna, 2012.
Bayle P. Historical and critical dictionary. V. 1-2. (In Russian). Moscow, 1968.
Schaeffer J.M. The end of human exceptionalism. (In Russian). Moscow: UFO, 2010.
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