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Diplomatic methods of conflict resolution: on the example of Ghana / Разрешение конфликтов с помощью дипломатии: напримере Ганы.
Сануси Хадж Ахмед

кандидат исторических наук

Росcийский университет дружбы народов

117198, Россия, Moscow область, г. Moscow, ул. Mik-Maklaya, 15/1, кв. 129

Sanusi Hajj Ahmed

PhD in History

Peoples' Friendship University of Russia

117198, Russia, Moscow oblast', g. Moscow, ul. Mik-Maklaya, 15/1, kv. 129

hajjsanusi@yahoo.com
Другие публикации этого автора
 

 

Аннотация.

С момента своего создания Организация Объединенных Наций (ООН) выступала гарантом обеспечение мира и стабильности в мире. Согласно уставу, государства - члены обязаны вносить вклад в механизмы коллективной безопасности, установленные организацией, в качестве средства поддержания глобального мира и безопасности, если возникнет необходимость в соответствии с его уставом. Настоящая статья направлена на исследований место миротворчество во внешней политики республики Ганы и анализ опыта в миротворческой деятельности. Предметом исследования является урегулирование конфликтов между странами дипломатическим путем. Автор рассматривает Ганы как опыт в миротворческой деятельности, а также значение и проблемы миротворчества во внешней политике Ганы. Особое внимание уделяется вкладу Ганы в обеспечение военного и гражданского персонала миротворческим операциям Организации Объединенных Наций. Это исследование дает подробное представление о том, как меньшие круги, такие как Гана, использовали метод мягкой силы для достижения некоторых своих внешнеполитических целей. Особое внимание уделено вклад Ганы в предоставлений военного и гражданского персонала в миротворческие операций Организации Объединенных Наций. Это исследование дает подробное представление о том, как меньшие круги, такие как Гана, использовали метод мягкой силы для достижения некоторых из своих внешнеполитических задач. Через Организацию Объединенных Наций (ООН) в Гану вносятся взносы на операции по поддержанию мира. Опять же, авторский анализ объясняет, почему внешняя политика Ганы придает большое значение этим миротворческим операциям; преимущества и проблемы, которые он представляет для Ганы как развивающейся страны..

Ключевые слова: Урегулирование конфликтов, Безопасность, Мягкая сила, Миротворчество в Конго, вооруженные силы Ганы, Гана, Внешняя политика Ганы, Дипломатия, миротворчество ООН, Объединенные Нации

DOI:

10.25136/1339-3057.2018.3.26727

Дата направления в редакцию:

26-06-2018


Дата рецензирования:

27-06-2018


Дата публикации:

28-07-2018


Abstract.

Since the moment of its establishment, the United Nations (UN) acted as a guarantor of peace and stability in the world. According to the UN Charter, the member-states are obliged to contribute to the collective security mechanisms, adopted by the organization as the means for maintaining global peace and security. This article examines the place of peacemaking in foreign policy of the Republic of Ghana, as well as analyzes the experience in peacemaking activities. The subject of this research is the conflict resolution between the countries through diplomacy. The author considers Ghana’s experience in peacemaking activities, as well as the importance and problem of peacemaking in its foreign policy. Special attention is given to Ghana’s contribution to provision of military and civilian personnel with the UN peacemaking operations. In the course of this research it is demonstrated hoe the smaller players such as Ghana applied the method of soft power for achieving some of their foreign policy goals. The peacekeeping operations in Ghana are sponsored by the United Nations.

Keywords:

Ghanaian foreign policy, Ghana, Ghana Arm Forces, Peacekeeping in Congo, Soft Power, Security, Conflict Resolution, Diplomacy, United Nations Peacekeeping, United Nations

Introduction

The United Nations refers peacemaking as “action to bring hostile parties to agreement, essentially through such peaceful means as those foreseen in Chapter VI of the Charter of UN, Pacific Settlement of Disputes” (UNODC 2009: 3) [1]. Bolaji (2011) however echoes peacemaking as the “diplomatic effort intended to move a violent conflict into non violent dialogue, where differences are settled through representative political institutions” [2]. The objective of peacemaking thus is to have a lasting solution between parties involved. In accordance with the UN charter, member state such as Ghana is obligated to contribute to the collective security mechanism prescribed by the organizations as a means of maintaining global peace and security [3]. However, the pursuit of international peace and security has traditionally been at the core of the Ghanaian foreign policy, which is inspired by her belief in the principle of peaceful coexistence among the community of nations. This commitment to international peace and security is reflected in her history of continued participation in international peacekeeping efforts across the globe [4]. Ambrose Dery (Interior Minister of Ghana) adds that, “we can succeed in building a vibrant and stable democracy underpinned by a prosperous economy, only if we work relentlessly to maintain the peace and security” [5]. To this end, Ghana has contributed to numerous peacekeeping and peace support initiatives mainly under the aegis of the UN and has consequently earned for itself the commendation and global admiration [6].

This article attempts to chronicle some of the prominent contributions to peacekeeping and peace support operations undertaken by Ghana, with particular propositions on; the United Nations Operations in the Congo (ONUC) in the 1960s, the United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF II) in Sinai in the 1970s, the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) [7], the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) in the 1990s, and the United Nations Assistance Mission in Rwanda (UNAMIR) also in the 1990s. Again, authors historical discourse aims at explaining why Ghana attaches great importance to these peace keeping activities; the benefits and challenges it pose to Ghana as a developing country.

Historical Discourse of Ghana at Peacekeeping Missions

History dated Ghana in the 1960s with the United Nations Operations in Congo (ONUC). When Congo attained independence from Belgium. Crisis broke out almost immediately after following numerous riots portraying the distaste of the citizenry for Belgian involvement in the country. Consequently, Belgium sent in troops to protect and evacuate its nationals and other Europeans [8]. To compound the crisis, a day after the arrival of the Belgian forces, Katanga declared secession from the Congo. Coupled with a political crisis and its attendant worsening security situation, the Congolese government then requested for military assistance from the United Nations, ostensibly to protect the state from external aggression. At the same time, Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba, had appealed to President Keame Nkrumah of Ghana for military assistance [9].

In response to the Congolese request, the UN Security Council issued resolution 132 on 14th July 1960 calling for the withdrawal of Belgian troops from the Congo and establishing the “Operations des Nations Unies au Congo” (ONUC) thus providing the authority for the Secretary-General, Dag Hammarskjöld, to raise the necessary military resources to stabilize the situation in the Congo [10]. Within 48 hours of the call by the Security Council, UN peacekeeping troops began to arrive in the Congo. Altogether, 18 UN member countries contributed both military and civil personnel to ONUC. The Troop Contributing Countries (TCCs) included Ethiopia, India, Mali, Nigeria, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Ireland, Indonesia, Malaysia, Senegal, Morocco, Guinea, Sudan, United Arab Republic (UAR), Pakistan, Tunisia, Sweden and Ghana [11].

Ghana responded to the Congolese call for troops by sending envoys to Leopoldville upon receipt of Lumumba’s appeal. Within 24 hours, President Kwame Nkrumah also sent his Chief of Defense Staff, Major-General H.T. Alexander, after the delegation, to go and assess the form of assistance Lumumba required and whether or not Ghana could afford it [12]. All these preparatory arrangements took place even before the UN Security Council could respond to the Congolese request. On arrival however, the Ghanaian troops quickly became part of the UN force. By 16th July 1960, the first batch of Ghanaian troops, under the command of Brigadier-General J.E. Michel, had arrived in the Congo. Colonel J.A. Ankrah succeeded General Michel as Contingent Commander in June 1961, when the latter was appointed as the ONUC Chief of Staff [13].

Major-General Alexander, who was initially in the Congo to assess the situation prior to the arrival of the Ghanaian troops, became the de facto commander of the UN forces until General Van Horn of the Netherlands was appointed as the substantive force commander. Before the UN Mission folded up, Ghana had sent, all together, three battalions along with over 150 trucks and hundreds of tons of supplies. To ensure a successful execution of this mission, Nkrumah created a Congo Coordinating Committee (CCC), which was to monitor and direct the operation from Accra.

According to Major Bioh (2000) [14], for the most part, the Ghanaian contingent seemed unprepared for many developments that ordinarily should have been expected if it was better prepared in terms of planning and pre-deployment training. Notable personnel from Ghana include Major-General Alexander, Chief of Defense Staff of Ghana, who operated in Leopoldville as a special emissary of Dr. Nkrumah and briefly acted as the unofficial Force Commander of ONUC in its nascent stages. Others included, Mr. Robert K.A. Gardener, who was the Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General (SRSG) of ONUC from 1962 to 1963; Brigadier General J.E. Michel, Chief of Staff of ONUC from the start of the operation to August 1961, and Colonel S.J.A. Otu, who doubled as Chief Liaison Officer of ONUC and Military Adviser to the Congolese Government [15].

Ghana at the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL)

Similarly with the Palestinian-Israeli six-day war in 1967, which led to the UN interventions in Lebanon. The UN Secretary-General on 19th March 1978, appointed a Ghanaian Lieutenant-General Emmanuel A. Erskine as the first Force Commander of UNIFIL, a position he held till 14th February 1981. Erskine, who was, at the time of the appointment, in charge of UNTSO, immediately set up UNIFIL headquarters at Naquora, Southern Lebanon, on the premises of an UNTSO outstation and set about making arrangements to carry out his task. The first UN troops commenced deployment into Lebanon on 21st march 1978 and comprised mainly of military observers of UNTSO. They were joined by Swedish, Canadian, and Iranian troops of UNEF II operating in nearby Sinai and later by French, Irish and Senegalese soldiers. On the recommendation of Secretary-General Kurt Waldheim, the UN Security Council adopted Resolution 427 on 3rd May 1978 increasing the size of the force from 4,000 to 6,000 and by June the force consisted of: France (1,244), Norway (930), Nigeria (669), Ireland (665), Nepal (642), Senegal (634), and Canada (102) [16].

Again, with the crises in Rwanda, the UN Security Council passed Resolution 872 on 5th October 1993 establishing the United Nations Assistance Mission in Rwanda (UNAMIR), ostensibly to implement the tenets of the Arusha Peace Agreement [17]. UNAMIR was effectively established on 1st November 1993 with Major-General Romeo Dallaire of Canada and Brigadier-General Henry Kwami Anyidoho of Ghana appointed as the Force Commander and Deputy Force Commander, respectively. Brigadier-General Anyidoho also doubled as the UNAMIR Chief of Staff. The UNAMIR force deployed into five military operational sectors with the 800-man Ghanaian contingent (GHANBATT). The peacekeeping force of UNAMIR, which included, among others, contingents from Belgium, Bangladesh, France, Canada, Tunisia and Ghana, was ill equipped, under resourced and had a huge human resource deficit [18]. Additionally, through the UN, Ghana has provided shelter for a large number of Liberian refugees fleeing the conflict during its crises. To this end, the country in collaboration with the United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) established a refugee camp to house Liberian refugees in Ghana and with the Sierra Leonean conflict in 1991 [19].

Significance and Challenges of Peacekeeping for Ghana

According to Armstrong (2010), between 2001 and 2010, more than half of all UN peacekeeping forces came from seven countries: Pakistan, Bangladesh, India, Nigeria, Jordan, Nepal, and Ghana. All these countries are categorized either as third world or developing countries and do not possess enough economic resources to spare in the pursuit of international adventurism. Yet, at any time over the past two (2) decades, the world’s top five (5) peacekeeping troop contributors are among these seven (7), each of which have individually provided more troops than the combined total of the five (5) permanent members (P5) of the United Nations Security Council (UNSC). Additionally, developing countries such as Ghana tend to enjoy greater benefits from participation in international peacekeeping in comparison with other develop countries [20].

With participation in international peacekeeping by developing countries like Ghana, Matt Armstrong notes that, several such developing countries now employ peacekeeping operations to advance their foreign policy agendas, as peacekeeping provides them with a platform for global visibility. India, according to Krishnasamy and Weigold (2003), has adopted a proactive approach to UN peacekeeping as part of its new foreign policy orientation in the post Cold-War era [21]. Similarly with Ghana and her long history of sustained participation in international peacekeeping affords it the same opportunities as India in that regard. The Soft Power advantages of Ghana employs in continuous contribution of troops to international peacekeeping assignments have afforded the country with the much needed international attention. Again, developing country like Ghana, have fewer options available in trying to achieve its foreign policy objectives. Ghana, having no military or economic might and no strategic alliances with powerful states, has but few options available to it as ways of achieving its foreign policy. Moreover, all the peacekeeping operations that Ghana has participated in, since 1960, have been an effort by the country to achieve one of its most recognized foreign policy objectives; thus, maintenance of international peace and security.

Peacekeeping also brings direct financial benefits to the state in the form of reimbursements from the UN peacekeeping Fund. The country has benefited from programs under the sponsorship of advance countries such as the African Crisis Response Initiative (ACRI) and the African Contingency Operations Training and Assistance (ACOTA) from the United States State, and the African Conflict Prevention Pool (ACPP), from the United Kingdom Government [22]. These programs provide military training and equipment to African national armies to enable them undertake peace support operations and humanitarian relief with the goal of increasing the capabilities of these militaries in such areas as human rights, interaction with civil society, international humanitarian law, military staff skills, and small unit operations.

Conclusion

Member states such as Ghana are strategically mindful of their interests that serve in providing troops for the peacekeeping operation. It is important to state that, while peacekeeping activities come with its own cost (casualties), these involvements aim at raising funds for its military due to scarce resources [23]. Secondly, it devotes much attention to this type of foreign policy and also considers it to be an internal issue, particularly in the sub-region, since regional conflicts could potentially move into its territory and affect internal security. Policies such as participation in regional peacekeeping are considered important to national well being, and the security of the country. Finally, its constitution devotes attention to treaty obligations, and “adhere to the principles enshrined in and ideals of the AU Charter” [24]. The above mentioned, hence explains the policy and ideology of these participations. A developing country like Ghana strategically adheres to this policy, to have its voice heard on the continent.

Библиография
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2.
Thompson, W. S., (1969). Ghanas Foreign Policy 1957 – 1966: Diplomacy Ideology, and the New State. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

16 Krishnasamy, K., & Weigold, A., (2003). “The paradox of India’s peacekeeping.” Contemporary South Asia.12 (2)

17. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Regional integration of Ghana View Article: DOI: www.mfa.gov.gh/index.php

18. WALTER DORN and DAVID J.H. BELL Intelligence and Peacekeeping: The UN Operation in the Congo, 1960-64 A. International Peacekeeping, Vol.2, No.1, Spring 1995, pp.11-33 PUBLISHED BY FRANK CASS, LONDON

19. Zartman, I. W., (1991), 'Regional conflict resolution', ed. V. A. Kremenyuk, Processes of International Negotiations (PIN) Project, International Negotiation: Analysis, Approaches, Issues. Oxford: Jossey-Bass: San Francisco, p. 307
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United Nations Peace Operations YEAR IN REVIEW; 2009 United Nations Information Centre. Accra, Ghana 29 May 2017.
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Adu-Amanfoh, Frank, Understanding the United Nations System and Second Generation Peacekeeping Accra: Adwinsa Publications (Gh) Ltd. 1997.
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El-Hajj, J., (1998) UNIFIL in Lebanon: The Past and the Future. US Army War College. Unpublished
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Constitution of the Republic of Ghana: The Directive Principles of State Policy. Chapter 6, Article 40.
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Armstrong, M., (2010). UN Peacekeeping as Public Diplomacy. World Politics Review. Retrieved from www.mountainrunner.us accessed November 2014.
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Agyemang-Bioh, N. P. E., (2000). Preparing for United Nations International Peacekeeping Operations in the Third Millennium. Accra: Imagine Consult.
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References (transliterated)
1.
United Nations. (1992). Basic Facts About the UN, New York, NY: Dept. of Public Information, p. 42. Op. cit.
2.
Thompson, W. S., (1969). Ghanas Foreign Policy 1957 – 1966: Diplomacy Ideology, and the New State. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

16 Krishnasamy, K., & Weigold, A., (2003). “The paradox of India’s peacekeeping.” Contemporary South Asia.12 (2)

17. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Regional integration of Ghana View Article: DOI: www.mfa.gov.gh/index.php

18. WALTER DORN and DAVID J.H. BELL Intelligence and Peacekeeping: The UN Operation in the Congo, 1960-64 A. International Peacekeeping, Vol.2, No.1, Spring 1995, pp.11-33 PUBLISHED BY FRANK CASS, LONDON

19. Zartman, I. W., (1991), 'Regional conflict resolution', ed. V. A. Kremenyuk, Processes of International Negotiations (PIN) Project, International Negotiation: Analysis, Approaches, Issues. Oxford: Jossey-Bass: San Francisco, p. 307
3.
UN Workshop on Lessons from ECOWAS Peacekeeping Operations 1990 – 2004: Towards An Action Agenda for Implementation held at Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre, Accra Ghana 10 – 11 February 2005.
4.
United Nations. (1992). Basic Facts About the UN. New York, NY. Dept. of Public Information, p. 40.
5.
United Nations Peace Operations YEAR IN REVIEW; 2009 United Nations Information Centre. Accra, Ghana 29 May 2017.
6.
UN Office on Drug and Crime (UNODC) 2009. “Transnational Trafficking and the Rule of Law in West Africa: A Threat Assessment. “Vienna, AT: UNODC.
7.
Adu-Amanfoh, Frank, Understanding the United Nations System and Second Generation Peacekeeping Accra: Adwinsa Publications (Gh) Ltd. 1997.
8.
Reports: United Nations Peace Operations. New York. November 2011
9.
Emma Birikorang “Benefits of Regional Security Involvement” Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre, Accra. KAIPTC Paper No. 20, September 2007.
10.
El-Hajj, J., (1998) UNIFIL in Lebanon: The Past and the Future. US Army War College. Unpublished
11.
Constitution of the Republic of Ghana: The Directive Principles of State Policy. Chapter 6, Article 40.
12.
Armstrong, M., (2010). UN Peacekeeping as Public Diplomacy. World Politics Review. Retrieved from www.mountainrunner.us accessed November 2014.
13.
Agyemang-Bioh, N. P. E., (2000). Preparing for United Nations International Peacekeeping Operations in the Third Millennium. Accra: Imagine Consult.
14.
Alexander, H. T., (Maj. Gen.) (1965). African Tightrope, London: Pall Mall, p. 34.
15.
Anyidoho, H. K., (1996). Guns Over Kigali, Accra. Woeli Publishing Services, p. 2.