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Riekkinen M.A. Residence Registration as a Condition for the Implementation of Human Rights and Freedoms: International Legal Aspect

Опубликовано в журнале "SENTENTIA. European Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences" в № 4 за 2014 год в рубрике "Law" на страницах 297-306.

Аннотация: The article provides an overview of the legal issues related to residence registration, both in the former Soviet Union and in Europe. In the former Soviet Union, the issues of residence registration are associated with the remnants of the propiska system in the legal systems of individual states, as well as with the imperfection of modern population registration systems. In the European context, such problems are related mainly to the issue of irregular migrants. The author systematizes the recommendations of international human rights bodies in relation to the optimization of the residence registration system. She uses examples of legislative solutions found by Scandinavian countries. International law provides us with a large amount of political, socio-economic and cultural rights. However, most of the rights are provided only if a person has official documents and registration. Residence registration is one of the necessary conditions for fundamental human rights.

Ключевые слова: political rights, exercising fundamental rights, registration of the population, residency permit, principles of OSCE, European Council, European Court of Justice, foreign experience, illegal migrants.

DOI: 10.7256/1339-3057.2014.4.14156

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Библиография:
The European Court of Human Rights, Slivenko vs Latvia, Application No. 48321/99, Judgment of October 9, 2003.
OSCE, Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights, Guidelines on Population Registration (Warsaw: OSCE/ODIHR, 2009).
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See, for example, UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, Follow-up: State Reporting on Uzbekistan, UN Doc. CERD, A/62/18 (2007), paragraph 16.
The official website of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Finland is available at: http://www.intermin.fi/en/migration/fight_against_illegal_immigration.
See, for example: Barbara Bogusz, Ryszard Cholewinski, Adam Cygan, and Erika Szyszczak (eds.) (2004) Irregular Migration and Human Rights: Theoretical, European and International Perspectives. Leiden and Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers; Centre for European Policy Studies (October 2010) ‘Assessing EU Policy on Irregular Immigration under the Stockholm Programme’. Available at: www.ceps.eu/book/assessing-eupolicy-irregular-immigration-under-stockholm-programme (accessed 29 March 2011); E. Guild, ‘Who is an Irregular Migrant?’, 3-28, in Barbara Bogusz, Ryszard Cholewinski, Adam Cygan and Erika Szyszczak (eds), Irregular Migration and Human Rights: Theoretical, European and International Perspectives. (Leiden and Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers , 2004); Dora Kostakopoulou (2004) ‘Irregular Migration and Migration Theory: Making State Authorisation Less Relevant’, in Barbara Bogusz, Ryszard Cholewinski, Adam Cygan and Erika Szyszczak (eds), Irregular Migration and Human Rights: Theoretical, European and International Perspectives. Leiden and Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 41-57; Sylvie Da Lomba, Irregular migrants and the human right to health care: a case-study of health-care provision for irregular migrants in France and the UK, in: 7 (3) International Journal of Law in Context (2011); Douglas W. Macpherson and Brian D. Gushulak (2004) ‘Irregular Migration and Health’, Global Commission on International Migration (GCIM), Global Migration Perspectives, No. 7, October. Available at: www.gcim.org/gmp/Global¨Migration¨Perspectives¨No¨7.pdf (accessed 29 March 2011).
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According to Art. 19.15 of the Code of Administrative Offences of the Russian Federation, "living at the place of residence or stay of the citizen of the Russian Federation... without the "registration" at the place of stay or residence – will result in an administrative fine of one thousand five hundred to two thousand five hundred rubles" (as revised by the Federal Laws of 25.10.2004 No.126-FZ and of 22.06.2007 No.116-FZ). The Russian Federation, Code of Administrative Offences of the Russian Federation of 30.12.2001 No. 195-FZ (as revised 07.02.2013), Collection of Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation, 07.01.2002, No. 1 (Part 1), Art. 1.
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General Comments represent the official interpretation of the provisions of the Covenants published by the bodies that are authorized to exercise control over the execution of the Covenants.
According to the Comments, "whatever form of constitution or government is in force, the Covenant requires States to adopt such legislative and other measures as may be necessary to ensure that citizens have an effective opportunity to enjoy the rights it protects."
UN Human Rights Committee, Concluding Observations on Moldova, UN Doc. CCPR A/57/40 vol. I (2002), par. 5.
The CERD Committee, Follow-up: State Reporting on Uzbekistan, UN Doc. CERD, A/62/18 (2007), par. 16.
The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights was adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by Resolution 2200A (XXI) of the UN General Assembly on December 16, 1966; entered into legal force on March 23, 1976 in accordance with Art. 49.
OSCE. Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights. Guidelines on Population Registration (Warsaw: OSCE ODIHR, 2009).

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